суббота, 4 августа 2007 г.


In physics, torque (or often called a moment) can informally be thought of as "rotational force" or "angular force" which causes a change in rotational motion. This force is defined by linear force multiplied by a radius.

The SI unit for torque is the newton metre (N m). In U.S. customary units, it is measured in pounds-feet (lb-ft) (a.k.a. "foot-pounds"). The symbol for torque is τ, the Greek letter tau.

History of concept

The concept of torque, also called moment or couple, originated with the work of Archimedes on levers. The rotational analogues of force, mass, and acceleration are torque, moment of inertia, and angular acceleration, respectively.

Machine torque

Torque is part of the basic specification of an engine: the power output of an engine is expressed as its torque multiplied by its rotational speed. Internal-combustion engines produce useful torque only over a limited range of rotational speeds (typically from around 1,000–6,000 rpm for a small car). The varying torque output over that range can be measured with a dynamometer, and shown as a torque curve. The peak of that torque curve usually occurs somewhat below the overall power peak. The torque peak cannot, by definition, appear at higher rpm than the power peak.

Understanding the relationship between torque, power and engine speed is vital in automotive engineering, concerned as it is with transmitting power from the engine through the drive train to the wheels. Typically power is a function of torque and engine speed. The gearing of the drive train must be chosen appropriately to make the most of the motor's torque characteristics.

Steam engines and electric motors tend to produce maximum torque close to zero rpm, with the torque diminishing as rotational speed rises (due to increasing friction and other constraints). Therefore, these types of engines usually have quite different types of drivetrains from internal combustion engines.

Torque is also the easiest way to explain mechanical advantage in just about every simple machine.

On the Connection between Nationalism and Cuisine

Interview with Zafer Yenal

Zafer Yenal, assistant professor of sociology at the Bogazici University in Istanbul, explains the important connection between political processes and the cuisine – and why the term "Turkish cuisine" is a new development only since the 1980s

"Does baklava have a national identity?" Such a question is utter nonsense. All these dishes have been transported from place to place for centuries, says Yenal...

QUESTION: What food or dish is most discussed in Turkey?

Zafer Yenal: Recently there was a discussion about Halloumi cheese: whether it belongs to the Cypriot Turks or the Cypriot Greeks, or to the Turks. Such topics are regarded as very essentialist.

Before that a big discussion was held over the origins of the dessert baklava. The question was raised: "Does baklava have a national identity?" Such a question is utter nonsense. All these dishes have been transported from place to place for centuries. Different peoples prepare them in their own way and eat them in their own way. In the process, these dishes have absorbed something from every location and changed along the way.

What makes baklava baklava is not its Turkish, Greek, or Arab identity. Today, as a result of historical and societal influences, Baklava is eaten in Greece, Lebanon, Syria, and Armenia as well as in Turkey. The motivation behind the desire to account for the origins of a dish lies in the significance of nationalism in the modern world.

This happens on the same level as the pleasure we feel when our national team defeats their national team, or because we consider the people in our country to be more honorable, honest, hard-working, and successful than others. All of this is rooted in nationalism.

Click here for the rest of this interesting interview

6/18/2007 Permalink Add a comment links to this post

Wednesday, May 16, 2007
There are only “Developed People”

There are only “developed people” in the world, not “developed countries.” When a people becomes developed, the land and the country they live in also becomes developed.

The reason why Australia is today a developed country is because it was settled by the British, a developed people. If only Aborigines continued to live in Australia, today we would be referring to Australia as an “undeveloped country.”

~ Ege Cansen, Hurriyet

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The Fork in the Road

The upcoming elections on July 22 will be a turning point in Turkish history.

Turkey will decide whether it is a secular republic or a religious state.

The former can always host within itself those who want to establish a religious state. As a matter of fact, first Erbakan and then Tayyip Erdogan has captured power thanks to the democratic tolerance of the secular republic.

But the latter will never recognize the right to exist to anything else. Once a religious state is established, there is no going back.

~ Bekir Coskun

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What would I do if Shariat comes?

I am referring to a regime that would attempt to change my lifestyle as well as that of my wife, daughter, mother, and my siblings.

I will either leave this country…

Or I will put up a resistance to death although I’ve never picked up a weapon in my life.

So will Turkey wake up to such a reality on the morning of July 23? That’s where I differ from most people I know.

I think on the morning of July 23, Turkey will not wake up to such a reality.